Chloroplast

You can enter the chloroplast model and observe its structure. There are several ways how to do it: You can visit the viewpoints or click on the fish icon. You can also travel anywhere you like using the browser controls.

Chloroplast is the "power plant" of plant cells, producing energy and carbohydrates from the energy of light, water and carbon dioxide. It has two membranes surrounding it. The outer membrane is very premeable in comparison to the inner membrane. The inner membrane and the sacks - tylakoids - inside the chloroplast contain the enzymes which transform light energy into the energy forms that can be used by the cell. Inside the is chloroplast matrix - fluid with the enzymes building carbohydrates used by the cell for its vital energy demanding functions.

Mitochondrion also stores energy in the form of the proton gradient. This proton gradient (accumulated protons inside the inner mitochondrial membrane) is used to drive the ATP synthetising enzime like water drives the turbines of a power plant. ATP (adenosine 3 phosphate) is the common energy rich molecule in cells.

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